NCERT Solutions Class 10 Maths Real Numbers

# NCERT Solutions Class 10 Maths Real Numbers

## CHAPTER 1 (REAL NUMBER)

QUESTION-1 Use Euclid’s division algorithm to find the HCF of:

i)135 and 225 ii)196 and 38220 iii)867 and 225

Solution:

By Euclid’s division algorithm, we have

225=1×135+90

135=1×90+45

90=2×45+0

Hence, HCF(225,135)=HCF(135,90)=HCF(90,45)=45

Therefore, the HCF of 135 and 225 is 45

By Euclid’s division algorithm, we have

38220=196×195+0

196=196×1+0

Hence , HCF(196,38220)=196

Therefore, the HCF of 196 and 38220 is 196

By Euclid’s division algorithm, we have

867=225×3+102

225=102×2+51

102=51×2+0

Hence, HCF(867,225)=HCF(225,102)=HCF(102,51)=51

Therefore, the HCF of   867 and 225 is 51

Question 2: Show that any positive odd integer is of form 6q+1,6q+3 & 6q+5

where q is some integer.

Solution :

Using Euclid’s division algorithm,we have

x=bq+r {0≤r<b}….. (1)

Substituting b=6in equation (1)

So, x=6q+r, where r=0,1,2,3,4,5

If    r=0, x=6q+0(divisible by 2)…..even

r=1, x=6q+1(not divisible by 2)…..odd

r=2, x=6q+2(divisible by 2)…..even

r=3, x=6q+3(not divisible by 2)…..odd

r=4, x=6q+4(divisible by 2)…..even

r=5, x=6q+5(not divisible by 2)…..odd

Therefore,the number 6q,6q+1,6q+2,6q+3,6q+4,6q+5are either even or odd.Hence ,any positive odd integer is of the form 6q+1,6q+3 & 6q+5Where q is some integer.

Question 3: An army contingent of 616 members is to march behind an army band of 32 members in a parade. The two groups are to march in the same number of columns. What is the maximum number of columns in which they can march?

Solution :

The maximum number of columns would be the HCF of (616,32)

We can find the HCF of 616 and 32 by using the Euclid Division Algorithm.

Therefore,

616=19×32+8

32=4×8+0

8=8×1+0

So, HCF of 6161 and 32 is 8

Hence, the maximum number of columns in which they can march is 8.

Question 4: Use Euclid’s division lemma to show that the square of any positive integer is either of the form 3m, 3m+1 for some integer m.

Solution :

According to Euclid Algorithm ,

We have x=bq+r …..(1)

Substituting , b=3

We get,x=3q+r (where,0≤r<3

i.e r=0,1,2 )

When ,  r=0 ,x=3q…….(A)

r=1 ,x=3q+1…(B)

r=2 ,x=3q+2…(C)

So, Squaring eqn(A),(B) and (C)

We get,

From eqn (A),

X2 = 9q2

X2 = 3×3q2

X2 = 3×m (where,m=3q2)

From eqn (B),

x2=(3q+1)2

=9q2+1+6q

=9q2+6q+1

=3(3q2+2q) +1

=3m+1 (where,m=3q2+2q)

From eqn (C),

x2=(3q+2)2

=9q2+4+12q

=9q2+12q+3+1

=3(3q2+4q+1)+1

=3m+1 (where,m=3q2+4q+1)

Hence, any positive integer is either of the form 3m,3m+1 for some integer m.

EXERCISE 1.2

Question 6: Express each number as a product of its prime factors:

i)140 ii)156 iii)3825 iv)5005 v)7429

Solution :

1. i) 140

Take  LCM of 140 i.e  2×2×5×7×1

Hence,  140=2×2×5×7×1

1. ii) 156

Take LCM of 156 i.e 2×2×13×3×1

Hence, 156=2×2×13×3×1

iii)3825

Take LCM of 3825 i.e 3×3×5×5×17×1

Hence, 3825=3×3×5×5×17×1

iv)5005

Take LCM of 5005 i.e 5×7×11×13×1

Hence, 5005=5×7×11×13×1

v)7429

Take LCM of 7429 i.e 17×19×23×1

Hence, 7429=17×19×23×1

Question 7: Find the LCM and HCF of the following pairs of integer and verify that LCM×HCF=Product of the two numbers.

1. i) 26 and 91 ii) 510 and 92 iii) 336 and 54

Solution :

1. i) 26 and 91

26=2×13×1(expressing a product of its prime factors)

91=7×13×1(expressing as a product of its prime factors)

So, LCM(26,91)=2×7×13×1=182

HCF(26,91)=13×1=13

Verification:

LCM×HCF=13×182=2366

The product of 26 and 91 =2366

Therefore, LCM×HCF=Product of the two numbers.

1. ii) 510 and 92

510=2×3×17×5×1(expressing a product of its prime factors)

92=2×2×23×1(expressing a product of its prime factors)

So,

LCM(510,92)=2×2×3×5×17×23=23,460

HCF(510,92)=2

Verification:

LCM×HCF=23,460×2=46,920

Product of 510 and 92 =46,920

Therefore, LCM×HCF=Product of the two numbers.

iii) 336 and 54

336=2×2×2×2×7×3×1(expressing a product of its prime factors)

54=2×3×3×3×1(expressing a product of its prime factors)

So,

LCM(336,54)=24×33×7=3024

HCF(336,54)=2×3=6

Verification:

LCM×HCF=3024×6=18,144

The product of 336 and 54=18,144

Therefore, LCM×HCF=Product of the two numbers.

Question 8: Find the LCM and HCF of the following integers by applying the prime factorization method.

1. i) 12,15 and 21 ii) 17,23 and 29 iii) 8,9 and 25

Solution :

1. i) 12,15 and 21

12=2×2×3

15=5×3

21=7×3

From the above ,HCF(12,15,21)=3and LCM(12,15,21)=420

ii)17,23,and 29

17=17×1

23=23×1

29=29×1

From the above ,HCF(17,23,29)=1and LCM(17,23,29)=11339

iii)8, 9 and 25

8=2×2×2

9=3×3

25=5×5

From the above ,HCF(8,9,25)=1and LCM(8,9,25)=1800

Question 9: Given that HCF(306,657)=9 .Find LCM(306,657)?

Solution :

We know,

HCF×LCM=Product of two numbers

i.e 9×LCM=306×657

LCM=306×6579=22338

Question 10: Check whether 6n can end with the digit 0 for any natural number n.

Solution :

If the number 6n ends with the digit zero, then it is divisible by 5.Therefore the prime factorization of 6n contains the prime 5. This is not possible because the only prime in the factorization of 6n is 2 and 3 and the uniqueness of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic guarantees that there are no other prime in the factorization of 6n

Hence, it is very clear that there is no value of n in natural number for which 6n ends with the digit zero.

Question 11: Explain why 7×11×13+13 and 7×6×5×4×3×2×1+5 are a composite number.

Solution :

We have,

7×11×13+13

=13(7×11×1+1)

=13×78

=13×3×2×13

Hence, it is a composite number.

We have,

7×6×5×4×3×2×1+5

=5(7×6×4×3×2×1+1)

=5(1008+1)

=5×1009

Hence, it is a composite number.

Question 12: There is a circular path around a sports field. Sonia takes 18 minutes to drive one round of the field, while Ravi takes 12 minutes for the same. Suppose they both start at the same point and at the same time and go in the same direction, after how many minutes will they meet again at the starting point?

Solution :

Since, Both Sonia and Ravi move in the same direction and at the same time, the method to find the time when they will be meeting again at the starting point is LCM(18,12) is 2×3×3×2×1=36

Therefore, Sonia and Ravi will meet again after 36 minutes.

Question 13: Prove that 3 is irrational.

Solution :

Let us assume, that 3 is rational

i.e 3 =x/y (where x and y are co-primes)

y3 = x

Squaring both sides

We get

3y2 = x2……..(1)

x2 is divisible by 3

So, x is also divisible by 3

therefore we can write x=3k (for some values of k)

Substituting, x=3k in eqn 1

3y2 = (3k)2

y2 = 3k2

y2 is divisible by 3 it means y is divisible by 3

therefore x and y are co-primes.

Since, our assumption about 3–√ is rational is incorrect.

Hence, 3 is an irrational number.

Question 14: Prove that  3+2√3 is irrational.

Solution :

Let us assume that  3+23 is rational.

So, x= 3+23

x2=(3+23 )2

x2=21+123

3 = (x2−21) / 12…….(1)

because x is a  rational number

So, the expression  (x2−21) / 12 is also a rational number. This is a contradiction .Hence, 3+23 is irrational .

Question 15: Prove that the following are irrational numbers.

1. i) 1/√3 ii) 7√3 iii)6+√5

Solution :

1. i) 1/√3

1/√3 = 3 / 3

⇒ 1/3 = 3 / 3

⇒ 1/ 3  =1/3×3

Let, a =1/ 3 = 1/3×3 be a rational number .

⇒ 3a = 3

3a is a rational number.Since the product of any two rational numbers is a rational number which will imply that 3 is a rational number.B ut, it contradicts since 3 is an irrational number.

therefore 3ais an irrational or ais irrational.

Hence, 1/ 3  is irrational.

ii)73

Let, a=73 be a rational number.

⇒a/7=3

a/7 is a rational number. Since the product of two rational number is a rational number. Which will imply that 7

is a rational number. But, it contradicts since 7 is an irrational number.

therefore a/7is an irrational or ais irrational.

Hence,73 is irrational.

iii)6+3

Let, a=6+ √3 be a rational number .

Squaring , a2=(6+ 3)2

a2=36+23+3

a2=39+23

3 = (a2−39) / 12……………..(1)

Since, ais a rational number

So, the expression  (a2−39) / 12 is also rational number.

3 is a rational number .

Hence, 6+3 is irrational.

### ncert solutions class 10 maths real numbers

EXERCISE 1.4

Question 16: Without actually performing the long division, state whether the following rational numbers have a terminating decimal expansion or a non-terminating repeating decimal expansion.

1. i) 23/3125 ii) 27/32 iii) 32/35 iv) 5/1600 v)29/49 vi)27 / (24×53)

vii)29 / 22×56×73 viii)3/15 ix)35/50 x)77/210

Solution :

Note; If the denominator has only factors of 2 and 5 then it has terminating decimal expansion.

If the denominator has factors other than 2 and 5 then it has a non-terminating decimal expansion.

i)23/3125=23/52

Since the denominator has only 5 as its factor, it has a terminating decimal expansion.

ii)27/32 = 27/25

Since the denominator has only 2 as its factor, it has a terminating decimal expansion.

iii)32/35 = 32/3×7

Since the denominator has factors other than 2 and 5, it has a non-terminating decimal expansion.

1. iv) 5/1600=5 / 26×52

=1/26×51

Since the denominator has only  2 and 5 as its factors, it has a terminating decimal expansion.

v)29/49=29/72

Since the denominator has factors other than 2 and 5, it has a non-terminating decimal expansion.

vi)27 / 24×53

Since the denominator has only  2 and 5 as its factors, it has a terminating decimal expansion.

vii)29 / 22×56×73

Since the denominator has factors other than 2 and 5, it has a non-terminating decimal expansion.

viii)3/15 = 1/5

Since the denominator has only 5 as its factor, it has a terminating decimal expansion.

ix)35/50=7×5 / 21×52

= 7 / 21×51

Since the denominator has only  2 and 5 as its factors, it has a terminating decimal expansion.

x)77 / 210=7×11 / 21×51×3×7

=11 / 21×51×3

Since the denominator has factors other than 2 and 5, it has a non-terminating decimal expansion.

Question 17: Write down the decimal expansion of the following rational numbers.

i)23 / 3125 ii)27 / 32 iii)32 / 35 iv)5 / 1600 v) 29 / 49 vi)27 / 24×53

vii)29 / 22×56×73 viii)3 / 15 ix)35 / 50 x)77 / 210

Solution;

1. i) 23 / 3125 =0.00736
2. ii) 27 / 32 =.84375

iii) 32 / 35 =.91428….

1. iv) 5 / 1600 =.00312
2. v) 29 / 49 =.59183…
3. vi) 27 / 24×53 =.0135

vii) 29 / 22×56×73 =.00001…

viii) 3 / 15 =.2

1. ix) 35 / 50 =.7
2. x) 77 / 210=.36¯

Question 18: Decide whether the real numbers are rational or not. If they are rational, then write its perform. What can you say about the prime factors of q?

i)24.1352436789 ii).12346783940564543…… iii)41.2¯

Solution;

i)24.1352436789

Since it has a terminating decimal expansion, it is a rational number and q has factors of 2 and 5 only.

ii).12346783940564543……

Since, it has non-terminating and non- repeating decimal expansion, it is an irrational number.

iii)41.2¯

Since it has a non-terminating but repeating decimal expansion, it is a rational number and q has factors other than 2 and 5.

NOTE- all Questions are taken from NCERT book.  Source –http://ncert.nic.in/

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